The safest way to increase BAT (brown adipose tissue) thermogenesis is by exposure to cold (Yuan, 2017). Rutin is a dietary flavonoid shown, in a very recent study to increase energy expenditure like exposure to cold, “greatly increas[ing] core body temperature when animals were exposed to a cold environment (4 degrees C, 4 h) Genetically obese mice were able to switch energy sources from oxidizing glucose to oxidizing fat, a flexibility that is normally impaired in obese animals (Yuan, 2017).
In the study, genetically obese mice (Db/Db) and diet-induced obese mice (DIO) were treated with rutin (1 mg/ml added to their drinking water for 10 weeks). Increased thermogenesis in BAT was detected by the induction of “beige” tissue formation (in which WAT, white adipose tissue, is converted to a more BAT-like form, a process called “browning”), activating SIRT1/PPARgamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha/mitochondrial transcription factor, increasing the number of mitochondria, and increasing UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1) activity. “Indeed, the expression levels of BAT markers, such as UCP1, Cidea, and Prdm16 were dramatically increased in BAT from rutin-treated DIO or Db/Db mice (Yuan, 2017).” These are changes that are seen in cold-exposed BAT. SIRT1 activation is particularly interesting as it has been associated with increased longevity in many studies.
Activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism—for example, after cold exposure BAT “promotes the clearance of excessive triglycerides in the plasma by increasing lipid uptake into BAT,” where it is subsequently metabolized to create heat (thermogenesis) (Yuan, 2017).
Though certain FDA-approved drugs can promote the “browning” of white adipose tissue (WAT), they may be far more likely to have unwanted side effects than rutin—for example, rosiglitazone or beta-adrenergic agonist drugs (such as clenbuterol) have been reported to promote such “browning,” but are said not to be used in clinical practice for this purpose due to side effects.
The researchers (Yuan, 2017) conclude: “These findings reveal that rutin is a novel small molecule that activates BAT and may provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of metabolic disorders.”
Each serving (2 capsules) of our AGEless™ contains 125 mg of rutin. This formulation was designed to protect against glycosylation (an aging mechanism in which glucose combines with proteins to form AGEs, advanced glycation endproducts). The prevention of AGE formation is another beneficial effect of rutin. We’ve been taking AGEless for umpteen years.